CatsMedical & Health

Gum disease in cats diagnose and treat it

How to diagnose and treat it ??

Know the most important gum disease in cats?? How to diagnose and treat it ??

Many gum diseases in cats are like those in humans However, cavities almost do not occur in cats Treatments are also like those used with people. Proper dental care can help keep your cat’s teeth and gums healthy.Gum disease in cats

In this article, we will talk about the most common periodontal disease in cats and how to diagnose them?? And treat it??

A set of important definitions when talking about gum disease in cats 

plaque

Plaque is a thin layer of food particles, bacteria, saliva and dead cells that constantly settles on the teeth of your animal.

Tartar Gum disease in cats

Plaques from more than 72 hours begin to solidify into a substance called tartar that accumulates at the base of the teeth. This accumulation irritates the gums and contributes to the development of gum disease in cats.

periodontal disease in cats  Gum disease in cats

Gum disease in cats is an infection and inflammation in the tissues surrounding the teeth. It is caused by the accumulation of many different bacteria (plaque) at and below the gum line due – in part – to a lack of oral hygiene. This infection causes gingivitis and ligaments that attach to the teeth and surrounding bone. If gum disease is not treated in cats, teeth may be lost due to the loss of their supportive tissue. There are two types of gum disease:

1-Gingivitis

2- Periodontitis

 Treating gingivitis and periodontitis includes a professional dental cleaning by your vet. This requires anaesthesia. Treatments without anaesthesia may make the tooth look better but do not address the underlying problem: plaque below the gum line.

Gingivitis in cats

Gum disease in catsGingivitis in cats, the gum becomes inflamed due to bacterial deposits, but the ligaments and bones are not affected yet. The colour of the gum changes from coral pink to red or purple, and the edge of the gum swells. The gums tend to bleed upon contact. Bad breath is common. Gingivitis can be reversed by proper dental cleaning, but if not treated, it may lead to advanced periodontitis.

A form of gum disease appears in cats 6 to 8 months old. Cats with this condition are often suffer from swollen gums and bad breath. 

Gingivitis in cats can also be caused by several infectious or systemic diseases, including feline leukaemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, calici infection, acute kidney disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. When one of these systemic diseases occurs, gingivitis may be accompanied by inflammation or ulceration in other parts of the pink mucous lining in the mouth, a condition known as stomatitis. Learn about stomatitis in cats

Symptoms / Diagnosis: Gum disease in cats

Gingivitis in cats is characterized by swelling, redness and discomfort, and in severe cases, bleeding where the gums and teeth meet (gingival margin). Depending on the severity of gingivitis, cats may be reluctant to eat, and their heads may turn unusually while eating, or they may stop eating, saliva, or breathe bad breath (bad breath). In some cases, cats with gingivitis appear to favour soft foods.

Prevention and treatment of Gingivitis in cats Gum disease in cats

1-The best way to prevent gingivitis in cats is to remove accumulated deposits regularly by brushing teeth.

It is important to use only dental gel or toothpaste specifically designed for cats, as human products can be toxic to cats. While some cats require gradual insertion before regular brushing is allowed, most cats can eventually be trained to accept this precaution.

If your cat has severe gingivitis, brushing your teeth can be very painful, so consult a veterinarian before considering cleaning your cat’s gums with inflammation of the gums. Learn the most important dental problems in cats

Fortunately for cats who have already had gingivitis, the condition is usually reversible. The recommended treatment will depend on the severity of the cat’s condition and its underlying cause and may include cleaning the cat’s teeth at home. 

2- Give antibiotics (whether they are taken in the form of tablets or oral rinses), and reduce inflammation

3- Removal of plaque from the teeth (which usually requires anaesthesia)

4- Using immunosuppressants

5- In extreme cases, removing teeth that may serve as sources of inflammation. There is little or no evidence that treatment with gingivitis with antibiotics alone is effective.

In cases of gingivitis in cats caused by underlying systemic or infectious diseases, it is important to treat the underlying disease in order to manage gingivitis.

Periodontitis in cats

Gum disease in catsIf gingivitis is not controlled, it can develop into periodontitis in cats, a condition that cannot be reversed in the end. In periodontitis, the tissue that connects the tooth to the latent gums and bone weakens as a result of damage to the substances produced by pathogenic bacteria and inflammation caused by the cat’s immune system.

Destruction of the tissues that connect the tooth to both the soft and skeletal structures that fix the teeth may lead to the loss and loss of teeth. Periodontitis in cats is often caused by untreated gingivitis, so controlling the primary cleaning process is crucial.

Symptoms and diagnosis: Gum disease in cats

Given that gingivitis leads to periodontitis in cats, most cats with periodontitis will show signs of gingivitis (redness, swelling, and bleeding along the gums at the base of the teeth), and they may also be reluctant or unwilling to eat, or saliva , Or turning her heads to the side when chewing, developing bad breath. In addition to these signs, they may show a retraction of the gums, exposing tooth root surfaces, and dental movement. In extreme cases, the cat may lose one or more teeth.

Complete assessment of periodontitis in cats includes gingival examination and x-ray examination of the head and jaw, which requires anaesthesia.

Treating periodontitis in cats

To treat periodontitis in cats, the vet will recommend removing plaque and accumulated minerals by peeling and polishing the teeth while trying to save the teeth wherever possible. In extreme cases of periodontitis, it may be necessary to extract teeth, sometimes multiple teeth.

Resources:

https://www.vet.cornell.edu/departments-centers-and-institutes/

https://www.merckvetmanual.com/cat-owners/digestive-disorders-of-cats/dental-disorders-of-cats

https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/cat-care/promoting-wellness/common-cat-dental-problems

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